{ "_id": "meta", "_rev": "7-26beff826d3623b61eca0e2cf52b36d9", "collection_image_copyright": "Anton Gass", "collection_type": "bag", "vikus_data_available": false, "additional_information_links": [ [ "http:\/\/www.topoi.org\/group\/a-i-1-topoi-1\/", "http:\/\/www.topoi.org\/group\/a-i-1-topoi-1\/" ], [ "http:\/\/www.topoi.org\/project\/topoi-1-7\/", "http:\/\/www.topoi.org\/project\/topoi-1-7\/" ], [ "http:\/\/www.topoi.org\/publication\/25883\/", "http:\/\/www.topoi.org\/publication\/25883\/" ], [ "http:\/\/www.topoi.org\/publication\/30689\/", "http:\/\/www.topoi.org\/publication\/30689\/" ], [ "https:\/\/www.degruyter.com\/view\/product\/204493", "https:\/\/www.degruyter.com\/view\/product\/204493" ] ], "metadata_blocks": [ { "data": [ [ "Creators", "Anton Gass" ], [ "Publisher", "Edition Topoi" ], [ "Institutions", "Freie Universitt Berlin, Excellence Cluster Topoi EXC 264, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft" ], [ "Subject", "101 Ancient Cultures, 102 History" ], [ "Subject Scheme", "DFG" ] ], "title": "Specific attributes" }, { "data": [ [ "pid System", "DOI" ] ], "title": "Technical characteristics" } ], "keywords": [ "Kasachstan", "Siebenstromland", "\u00e4ltere Eisenzeit", "Fr\u00fcheisenzeit", "Skythen", "Saken", "Nekropolen", "Kurgan" ], "startpage_main_img": "MRMD.jpg", "additional_information_text": "For more information please refer to the documentation and the project websites. The project has been realized by: Hermann Parzinger, Anton Gass, Maik Bl\u00e4ttermann, Brigitta Sch\u00fctt, Manfred Frechen, Christiane Singer, Zajnolla S. Sama\u0161ev, Anatoli Nagler", "general_information": [ [ "Description", "Atlas der fr\u00fcheisenzeitlichen Kurgane (Grabh\u00fcgeln) der Saken in Siebenstromland zwischen Fluss Ili und Vorgebirgen des Transili-Alatau sowie in den Bergt\u00e4lern des n\u00f6rdlichen Tien-Shans" ] ], "uses_sci_version": 2, "collections_bg_img": "MRMD.jpg", "hierarchy_placeholder": "http:\/\/repository.edition-topoi.org\/img\/thumb_placeholder.jpg", "abstract": "During the years 2008-2011, the TOPOI project (A-1-1) \u201cPyramids of the Steppe\u201d, in cooperation with the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation in Berlin as well as the A. Ch. Margulan Insititute for Archaeology in Almaty\/Kazakhstan, investigated and mapped the large grave mounds \u2013 also known as Kurgans \u2013 in Early Iron Age necropoleis in southeastern Kazakhstan (Zhetysu).

Construction of the kurgans was in specific focus during this project, namely the internal structures of the necropoleis and their accordance with the landscape. Additionally, the features surrounding the large kurgans \u2013 belonging to the periphery of the kurgans as a whole \u2013 were recorded and evaluated.

The hitherto unpublished documentation of the ca. 1000 kurgans and their periphery offered a unique look into the burial grounds of the Early Irong Age nomadic horsemen of Zhetysu, dually helping to render a historical-cultural reconstruction of the region.", "description": "The kurgans (grave mounds) serve as the main material remains of the warrior nomadic horsement of the Early Iron Age in the Eurasian Steppe and belong to the Scythian cultural group. The excavations and research of these constructions yielded a great deal of information about the daily lives of the nomadic horsemen, as well as their economic and ideological basis. The materials found in the burials \u2013 weapons, jewelry, and imports \u2013 indicated the large communication network maintained by the nomadic horsemen during the 1st millennium BCE.

The Asian Scythians \u2013 also known as the Saka \u2013 occupied in the Kazakh steppe during the Early Iron Age.

The kurgans of the Saka stand in the centerpoint of the collection. Individual cemetaries are composed by several kurgans; these were studied within the necropoleis, which also served as the excavation sites. Illustrations and photos of the kurgans were supplemented with numbering, descriptions of their form and characteristics as well as with measurements encompassing diameter and height. For the first time in the Asian Steppe, four-sided, pyramid-like kurgans (\u201cPyramids of the Steppe\u201d) were discovered. If the kurgans indicated any indiviudal peripherial finds \u2013 such as circular enclosures, stone circles, processional routes \u2013 these were also measured and described. Each individual construction (kurgan) was dated by relative chronology.", "shorttitle": "KUSS", "research_group": [ "Anton Gass" ], "license": { "name": "Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE", "url": "https:\/\/creativecommons.org\/licenses\/by-nc-sa\/3.0\/de\/", "logo": "by-nc-sa.eu.png" }, "gallery_num_fig_per_page": 12, "title": "Pyramids of the Steppe \/ Kazakhstan, Land of Seven Rivers", "visible_on_startpage": true, "resource_type_icons_path": "http:\/\/repository.edition-topoi.org\/resource_type_icons\/default\/", "service_images_path": "\/KUSS\/ServiceKUSS\/Images\/", "institutions": [ "Freie Universitt Berlin", "Excellence Cluster Topoi EXC 264", "Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft", "Stiftung Preu\u00dfischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin", "Deutsches Arch\u00e4ologisches Institut, Eurasien-Abteilung, Berlin", "Institut f\u00fcr Arch\u00e4ologie \"A.Ch. Margulan\", Almaty\/Kasachstan" ], "default_thumb_extension": "jpg", "filter": { "subject": [ "Archaeology", "Prehistory", "Architecture" ], "resource_type": [ "Images" ], "geolocation": [ "Eurasia", "Kazakhstan", "Asia" ], "period": [ "Bronze Age", "Early Iron Age", "Prehistory" ] }, "doi": "10.17171\/2-13" }